OOP Full Form | its types,uses and benefits

OOP Full Form

Object Oriented Programming

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Introduction of OOP

Object Oriented Programming

The OOP Full Form in Computer language is

O  –> Object

O  –> Oriented

P   –> Programming

Object-oriented programming is the principle of design and development of programs using a modular approach.

The fundamental idea behind object-oriented language is to combine into a single unit both data and the functions that operate on that data.

Such a unit is called an object.

Imagine you’re building a virtual world, like a video game or a simulation. In this world, you have many different objects, like cars, animals, and buildings, each with their own unique characteristics and behaviors. Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) is like a powerful toolbox for organizing and controlling these objects.

The object-oriented paradigm is a programming methodology that promotes the efficient design and development of software systems using reusable components that can be quickly and safely assembled into longer systems.

Why is OOP Important?

1) Modularity –  Building Blocks for Complex Systems

OOP promotes modularity, which means you break down your program into small, manageable pieces (objects). Each object focuses on a specific aspect of your application. This modular approach makes it easier to design, develop, and debug your code.

2) Reusability – Write Once, Use Everywhere

By creating classes and objects, you can reuse code across your application or even in different projects. This saves time and effort, as you don’t have to rewrite the same code repeatedly.

3) Easy Maintenance – Troubleshooting Made Simple

With encapsulation, you can isolate issues within an object, making it easier to locate and fix problems without affecting other parts of your program. This separation of concerns simplifies debugging and maintenance.

4) Scalability – Grow Your Project with Confidence

OOP makes it easier to add new features or extend existing ones without disrupting the whole system. You can create new classes that fit seamlessly into your application.

Features of OOP

  • Encapsulation – Protects code by hiding its complexity, like a smartphone’s internals, and allows controlled access through well-defined methods.
  • Inheritance – Lets you create new classes based on existing ones, inheriting their attributes and behaviors, just like children inherit traits from their parents.
  • Polymorphism – Provides a consistent way to interact with different objects, allowing you to use a common interface, much like a universal remote control.
  • Abstraction – Simplifies complex systems, exposing only essential parts while hiding intricate details, similar to using a smartphone without knowing its inner workings.
  • Classes and Objects – Classes are blueprints for creating objects, like recipes for baking cookies. Objects are instances of these blueprints, making code more organized and maintainable.

What is OOP?

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a concept that combines both transform data and functions that operate on that data into one unit called an object.

An object is a collection of sets of data known as member data. The functions that operate on this data are known as member functions.

OOP follows bottom-up design techniques.

Class is the key concept that plays an important role in this approach.

Class is a template that represents a group of objects that share common Properties and relationships.

Difference between POP and OOP

Keys aspectProcedure-Oriented Programming (POP)Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)
Fundamental UnitProcedures or functionsObjects
Data HandlingData and functions are separate and often globalData and functions are encapsulated within objects
FocusFocus on procedures and actionsFocus on objects and their attributes and behaviors
ReusabilityLimited, as functions often specific to tasksHigh, as objects can be reused across the application
EncapsulationLimited; data is often exposed and shared globallyHigh; data is encapsulated within objects, promoting data security
InheritanceNot supportedSupported, allowing the creation of new objects based on existing ones
PolymorphismAchieved through different functionsAchieved through method overriding and interfaces
Complexity ManagementMay become complex and harder to maintainPromotes modularity and easier code maintenance
Real-World AnalogyLike following a recipe or a manualLike assembling and customizing Lego blocks
ExamplesC, Pascal, and FortranJava, Python, C++, and C#

What are the pillars of OOP?

1) Classes and Objects 

Class – 

1. A class is a group of objects which have common properties.

2. it is a template or blueprint from which objects are created.

3. It is a logical entity.

4. It is cant be physical no memory space

5. It is non primitive data type.

6. Class members are access modifiers, objects, methods, instance variables, and constructors.

For example: we can consider a car as a class that has characteristics like seats, steering wheels, brakes, etc.

Objects – 

1. It is a real-time entity in other words it is an instance of a class.

2. Objects are basic building blocks for designing programs.

3. An Object is a collection of data members and associated member functions.

4. An object may represent a place or a table of data.

5. Each object is identified by a unique name. Each object must be a member of a particular class.

6. Objects are variables of class.

Example: Apple, banana, mango, and orange are the objects of class fruit.

2) Attributes and Methods

Attributes (Properties) –

These are like the ingredients for your cake. They describe what your cake is made of. For example, if you’re making a chocolate cake, attributes could include the type of chocolate, the amount of sugar, and the flavor.

Methods (Behaviors) –

These are like the instructions for making the cake. It tells you how to mix the ingredients, bake the cake, and decorate it.

3) Encapsulation

The wrapping of data and functions into a single unit class is called data encapsulation.

Data encapsulation enables data hiding and information hiding.

It’s like keeping your secret recipe hidden from others. In OOP, you hide the inner details of how an object works, exposing only what’s necessary for others to use it.

It’s like having a black box where you don’t need to know how it’s made, just how to use it. This makes your code more secure and easier to understand and maintain.

Example: Medicine capsule


4) Inheritance

Inheritance example
Inheritance Example

It means creating a new class from the old one is called inheritance.

the new class is called subclass, derived class, or child class.

The old class is called the old class, parent class, base class

The new classes inherit the attributes and methods from their parent classes.

The derived class shares some of the properties of the base class. Therefore a code from a base class can be reused by a derived class.

Types of Inheritance :

  1. Single -> Class B ->Class A
  2. Multilevel -> Class C -> Class B -> Class A
  3. Hierarchical -> Class B -> Class A, Class C -> Class A
  4. Multiple -> Class C -> Class A,Class C -> Class B
  5. Hybrid -> Class D -> Class B and C, Class B, and C -> Class A

Example: A person who at the same time can have different characteristics.

5) Polymorphism

Poly is a Greek word. and morphism means may form.

It means the ability to create more than one form.

This concept allows different objects to respond to the same method name in their unique way.

In OOP, you can have multiple objects, each with its version of a method, but you can call that method by the same name.

It’s like having “playMusic” for your phone and “playMusic” for your computer, and they both work as expected.

In essence, polymorphism brings a level of flexibility to OOP, making your code more versatile.

Types of Polymorphism –

  1. Compile-Time Polymorphism (Static Binding)
  2. Run-Time Polymorphism (Dynamic Binding)

Static Binding –

It is also called early binding.

Think of this as making plans in advance. It’s like a chef creating a menu with dishes listed before the restaurant even opens.

In your code, you decide which specific method or function to call at compile time, based on the data types or parameters provided.

For example, if you have a function that adds two numbers, you know in advance that it will always be adding numbers, so the method to call is fixed.

Dynamic Binding –

Binding means the link between the procedure call and the code to be executed.

It is the process of linking a function call to the actual code of the function at run-time.

That is, in dynamic binding, the actual code to be executed is not known to the compiler until run-time.

It is also known as late binding.

6) Data abstraction 

Data abstraction allows you to hide the complex inner workings of a class or object and provide a simplified and clear way to interact with it.

You expose only what’s necessary for users of the class to understand and use while keeping the intricate implementation details hidden.

Data abstraction refers to the process of representing essential features without including background details or explanations.

Data abstraction is a programming and design technique that relies on the separation of interface and implementation.

An abstract class is a class that may not have any direct instances.

For example, think of a class called “Car.” A “Car” class might have methods like “start,” “stop,” and “accelerate.” Users of the class, such as other parts of your program, don’t need to know how these methods make the car work. They only need to know what each method does.

So, in your code, you can interact with the “Car” object without worrying about what happens under the hood when you call it “start.” This separation of concerns and hiding the complexity is what data abstraction is all about. It makes your code easier to understand, maintain, and use, just like using a smartphone without knowing its internal electronics.

Advantages of OOP

  • Effective problem solving
  • Modularity for easier troubleshooting
  • Reuse of code through inheritance
  • Flexibility through polymorphism.
  • Security is high
  • Better productivity

Disadvantages of OOP

  • It is not suitable for some sorts of problems
  • Memory Consumption- Each object created in OOP consumes memory, which can be a concern in resource-constrained environments.
  • Larger program size – Object-oriented programs typically involve more lines of code than procedural programs.

What is an Array in C++?

An array is a continuous memory location.

It’s a collection of data that holds items of the same type, like numbers or words.

Arrays are defined by two key components: 1) data type and 2) size.

  • Data Type: This refers to the type of elements that the array can hold. For instance, you can have an array of integers, characters, or any other data type.
  • Size: The size of an array determines the number of elements it can hold. You declare the size at the time of defining the array and, once set, it remains fixed.

Example:  int myNumbers[4];             // This is an array of integers that can hold 5 elements

This line of code tells C++ that you want an array called myNumbers with room for 4 integers.

Arrays and Loops

Arrays are often used together with loops to perform actions on each element. For example, you can use a for loop to calculate the total of all test scores in your array.


int total = 0;

for (int i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
total += testScores[i];

Multi-Dimensional Arrays

An array within an array is called a multidimensional array.

Arrays can also be multi-dimensional, like a grid or a table. Just as you have rows and columns in a table, multi-dimensional arrays provide a way to organize data in a structured manner.

For instance, a two-dimensional array could represent a chessboard. Each element would correspond to a square on the board, making it a powerful tool for games and simulations.


char chessboard[5][5]; // 2D array representing an 5×5 chessboard

Multi-dimensional arrays open up a realm of possibilities, enabling you to represent complex structures in a way that mirrors the real world.

Benefits of OOP

  1. It is easy to partition work for the same project.
  2. Message-passing techniques make communication easier.
  3. Maintenance cost is less.
  4. simple to implement.
  5. Object-oriented systems can be easily upgraded from small systems to large systems.
  6. software complexity can be easily managed.

What is the difference between abstraction and encapsulation?

DefinitionAbstraction is the concept of hiding unnecessary details and showing only the essential parts of an object or system. It focuses on what an object does rather than how it does it.Encapsulation involves bundling the data (attributes) and methods (functions) that operate on the data into a single unit, known as a class. It restricts direct access to some of the object’s components.
PurposeTo simplify complexity by representing complex systems or objects in a simplified manner, making it easier to understand and work with them.To protect the internal state of an object, ensuring that it can only be accessed and modified through well-defined interfaces, preventing unauthorized access or modification.
FocusFocuses on the “what” – what the object or system does and the essential features it provides.Focuses on the “how” – how the object’s data is stored and manipulated, and how interactions with the object are controlled.
Key MechanismsAbstraction is achieved through techniques like creating abstract classes or interfaces and using methods or properties to provide a simplified view of an object’s functionality.Encapsulation is achieved through techniques like access modifiers (public, private, protected), getters and setters, and defining class structures to control access to data.
BenefitsImproves code readability and maintainability, reduces complexity, and allows for better separation of concerns in a system.Enhances data security and control by hiding implementation details, promotes modularity, and helps in debugging and maintaining code.
ExampleThink of a car dashboard – you don’t need to know the internal workings of the engine to drive a car; you interact with the essential information on the dashboard.Consider a bank account class that encapsulates your balance. You can’t directly change the balance; you must use methods like deposit and withdraw, to ensure the account’s integrity.

OOP micro project topics

  1. Library Management System: Build a program to manage a library’s books, users, and checkouts. People can borrow and return books, and the system keeps track of it all.
  2. Online Shopping Cart: Create a shopping app. People can add items to a cart, remove them, and see the total cost.
  3. Task Tracker: Make a to-do list app. You can add, edit, and complete tasks and the app helps you stay organized.
  4. Student Information System: Develop software to manage student records and grades. It’s like a digital school register.
  5. Contact Book: Design a digital address book. You can store people’s contact info and organize them into groups.
  6. Inventory Management System: Create a system to keep track of products in a store or warehouse. It helps with ordering and stock management.
  7. Bank Account System: Build a basic banking app where you can deposit money, withdraw, and check your account balance.
  8. Social Media Profile: Make a simplified social media profile. You can create posts, comment on them, and like them.
  9. Restaurant Menu System: Develop a digital menu for a restaurant. Customers can place orders and see their bills.
  10. Vehicle Rental System: Create a system for renting vehicles like cars or bikes. Customers can reserve and rent them.

OOP language inventor

  1. Alan Kay (Smalltalk) – Think of Alan Kay as the “father” of OOP. He created Smalltalk, a pure OOP language where everything is an object. It laid the foundation for modern OOP.

  2. Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard (Simula) – These two Norwegian computer scientists invented Simula in the 1960s, introducing classes, objects, and inheritance, which are essential OOP concepts.
  3. Bjarne Stroustrup (C++) – Bjarne Stroustrup developed C++ in the 1980s. C++ is an extension of the C programming language and introduced key OOP features such as classes, objects, and polymorphism. It remains widely used in system and application development.

Interview Question on OOPS

  1. Q What is Object-Oriented Programming (OOP), and why is it important in software development?

    Answer: OOP is a programming paradigm that organizes code into objects, which are instances of classes. It’s important because it promotes code reusability and modularity, and makes it easier to model real-world concepts in code. OOP helps in building more maintainable and scalable software.

  2. Q What are the four main principles of OOP, and can you explain each briefly?

    Answer: The four main principles of OOP are:

    • Encapsulation: It involves bundling data and methods that operate on that data into a single unit, making data private and controlled to prevent unauthorized access.
    • Abstraction: Abstraction hides complex implementation details and provides a simplified view of objects or systems, focusing on what they do rather than how they do it.
    • Inheritance: Inheritance allows a new class to inherit properties and behaviors from an existing class, promoting code reuse.
    • Polymorphism: Polymorphism enables objects of different classes to be treated as objects of a common superclass, allowing flexibility in handling various objects.
  3. Q What is the difference between encapsulation and abstraction in OOP?

    Answer: Encapsulation focuses on controlling access to an object’s internal data by making it private and providing public methods to interact with the data. Abstraction, on the other hand, simplifies complex systems by showing only the necessary features and functionalities, hiding the implementation details.

  4. Q Explain the concept of inheritance in OOP.

    Answer: Inheritance is a way for a new class (subclass or child class) to inherit properties and behaviors from an existing class (superclass or parent class). It promotes code reusability, as you can create a new class based on an existing one, inheriting its attributes and methods while also adding or modifying them as needed.

  5. Q What is polymorphism, and how does it contribute to OOP?

    Answer: Polymorphism is the ability of different classes to be treated as instances of a common superclass. It allows you to write code that can work with objects of various types, making your code more flexible and adaptable. Polymorphism is often achieved through method overriding and interfaces, allowing different classes to have their own implementations of common methods.

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